Digitizing Special Formats
This list of resources has been curated by the Digital Library Federation for the benefit of cultural heritage professionals planning projects involving the digitization of rare and unique materials. Applicants to the Digitizing Hidden Special Collections and Archives  program of the Council on Library and Information Resources  may find these helpful in planning project proposals.
Rather than providing comprehensive coverage, this list includes introductory and reference materials that are good places to begin an exploration of issues of broad import to digitizing cultural heritage materials.
If you would like to suggest a resource for inclusion on this page, send your suggestion to DigiWiki@clir.org. The DLF is currently seeking professionals from DLF member institutions who would like to participate in a curatorial group to develop and maintain the content of this page. Prospective volunteers for this group should also send expressions of interest to DigiWiki@clir.org.
PROJECT PLANNING & MANAGEMENT
The Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative (or FADGI)  is a collaboratively maintained clearinghouse of information related to digitization, from project planning , to digital file formats , to technical specifications . FADGI was launched in 2007 under the auspices of the National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (NDIIPP). Two groups of professionals from federal agencies develop FADGI outcomes: (1) the Still Image Working Group  produces guidelines for creating digital images of cultural heritage materials; and (2) the Audio-Visual Working Group  covers the digitization of analog audio and audiovisual recordings as well as the digital reformatting of born-digital audio or audiovisual content. http://www.digitizationguidelines.gov
The Association of Research Libraries (ARL)  developed the Principles to Guide Vendor/Publisher Relations in Large-Scale Digitization Projects of Special Collections Materials  in 2010 to help institutions build strong working relationships with commercial partners while creating broad access to their collections. http://www.arl.org/storage/documents/publications/principles_large_scale_digitization.pdf
Working with the Digital Library Federation  Assessment Group, Joyce Chapman at the State Library of North Carolina developed the Library Digitization Cost Calculator  using data collected by Duke University, the University of Alabama, and the Triangle Research Libraries Network. The tool can help professionals create rough estimates for still image digitization of archival collections. http://statelibrarync.org/plstats/digitization_calculator.php
A number of cultural heritage institutions and professionals have created videos about their digitization work for YouTube .
The EU-based IMPACT Project (IMProving ACcess to Text)  provides useful documentation and case studies related to mass digitization of text, optical character recognition (OCR), and estimating digitization costs and storage. http://www.impact-project.eu/taa/strat/pilot-tools
Best Practices for TEI in Libraries  provides a recent (2011) overview of possible approaches to incorporating encoded text into large-scale digitization projects. http://www.tei-c.org/SIG/Libraries/teiinlibraries/
The Guidelines and Resources  page on the National Digital Newspaper Program (NDNP) website  provides information about best practices for digitizing newspapers and making newspaper content broadly accessible and discoverable. The NDNP is a partnership of the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) and the Library of Congress. The NEH operates the National Digital Newspaper funding initiative , which offers grants specifically for newspaper digitization. http://www.loc.gov/ndnp/guidelines/
The Center for Research Libraries (CRL)  maintains the International Coalition on Newspapers (ICON)  database, which contains issue and holdings data for nearly 170,000 publications  dating from the seventeenth century through the present. The ICON project also includes a directory of digitization efforts around the globe . CRL is actively seeking new contributors to the ICON database; they invite feedback about the project through the database website . http://icon.crl.edu
Rare Books & Manuscripts
The International Federation of Library Associations  (IFLA) Rare Book and Special Collections Section  published its Guidelines for Planning the Digitization of Rare Book and Manuscript Collections  in 2014, covering project design, metadata creation, dissemination, and project assessment. http://www.ifla.org/files/assets/rare-books-and-manuscripts/rbms-guidelines/ifla_guidelines_for_planning_the_digitization_of_rare_book_and_manuscripts_collections_september_2014.pdf
The International Press Telecommunications Council (IPTC) Core Standard Specification  is a widely used metadata standard for describing photographs and includes details about embedding metadata into digital image files. http://www.iptc.org/cms/site/index.html?channel=CH0099
The International Image Interoperability Framework (IIIF) is a community of research libraries and image repositories collaboratively developing applications and application programming interfaces that can produce an interoperable technology and community framework for image delivery. http://iiif.io/about.html
Audio and Audiovisual Recordings
The State of Recorded Sound Preservation in the United States: A National Legacy at Risk in the Digital Age  is a report commissioned by the National Recording Preservation Board  of the Library of Congress that gives an overview of the complex legal and technical issues facing the preservation of recorded sound. The Board itself also maintains an Audio Preservation Bibliography . http://www.clir.org/pubs/abstract/reports/pub148
New York consulting company AVPreserve  maintains a useful list of publications and presentations on tools and techniques for the preservation of audiovisual media . http://www.avpreserve.com/avpsresources/papers-and-presentations/
A list of National Geospatial Program Standards and Specifications  appears on the United States Geological Survey (USGS)  National Map Project website . http://nationalmap.gov/standards/index.html
METADATA AGGREGATION & REGISTRIES
The Digital Public Library of America (DPLA)  aggregates the metadata of digital collections held in educational and cultural heritage institutions across the United States. Institutions with large digital collections may contribute data as Content Hubs , while smaller organizations may contribute through local or regional Service Hubs . Contributors must abide by the DPLA's data policies  in order to participate. See also: An Introduction to the DPLA Metadata Model (pdf) ; The DPLA Metadata Application Profile ; DPLA Metadata Aggregation Webinar Recording, 1/22/15 . http://dp.la/
Many DPLA Service Hubs and their partners provide useful documentation and links to tools for metadata normalization, quality control, and aggregation through their project websites.
--Digitization Guidelines, North Carolina Digital Heritage Center : http://www.digitalnc.org/about/policies/digitization-guidelines/
--DPLA aggregation tools on GitHub, North Carolina Digital Heritage Center: https://github.com/ncdhc
--Portal Partners Page, The Portal to Texas History : http://www.library.unt.edu/digital-projects-unit/our-partners
The Print Archives Preservation Registry (PAPR)  collects information about serial titles, print holdings, and archiving terms and conditions. It is a valuable resource for assessing the uniqueness of serial collections and determining the degree of need for digitization of those collections. http://papr.crl.edu
The Directory of Open Access Repositories (OpenDOAR)  is an international directory of academic open access repositories, useful for those seeking options for depositing digital collections or models for developing new digital repositories. http://www.opendoar.org/index.html
The Internet Archive  website links to a wealth of relevant information about repositories, copyright and intellectual property, web archiving, and large-scale data storage under "Related Projects and Research" . Internet Archive also offers digitization and repository services for institutions building and maintaining digital collections. https://archive.org/about/#research
The Trustworthy Repositories Audit & Certification: Criteria and Checklist (TRAC)  describes the characteristics of secure and sustainable digital repository management. http://www.crl.edu/archiving-preservation/digital-archives/metrics-assessing-and-certifying/trac
The National Digital Stewardship Alliance (NDSA)  has published the 2015 NDSA National Agenda for Digital Stewardship , which provides a broad overview of current "challenges, opportunities, gaps, and trends" related to building and maintaining digital collections in the United States. See also: The NDSA Levels of Digital Preservation . http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/ndsa/documents/2015NationalAgenda.pdf
The Sustainability of Digital Formats page  provides detailed descriptions and notes on sustainability issues for hundreds of digital file formats . http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/formats/intro/intro.shtml
The Northeast Document Conservation Center (NEDCC)  has compiled a Digital Preservation Reading List  that provides a thorough introduction to the challenges of digital preservation as they relate to cultural heritage collections. Additional links to resources related to digital preservation are provided on NEDCC's website . https://www.nedcc.org/assets/media/documents/DigiPres_Biblio_Digital_Directions_2014_update.pdf
From Theory to Action: “Good Enough” Digital Preservation Solutions for Under-Resourced Cultural Heritage Institutions (2014) is a white paper compiling the results of a three-year study of affordable, scalable digital preservation solutions suitable for under-resourced organizations. http://commons.lib.niu.edu/handle/10843/13610
Digital Preservation Management: Short-Term Strategies for Long-Term Problems is a tutorial created by Cornell University Libraries with funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities. It is now hosted by the MIT Libraries: http://www.dpworkshop.org/dpm-eng/eng_index.html
COPYRIGHT & INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
Copyright and Cultural Institutions: Guidelines for Digitization for U.S. Libraries, Archives, and Museums  by Peter Hirtle, Emily Hudson, and Andrew Kenyon (2009) provides comprehensive coverage of all major copyright issues relevant to digitization in cultural heritage institutions. This work is also available in print from the Society of American Archivists . http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1495365
The Berkeley Digital Library Copyright Project produces and disseminates research about copyright issues facing cultural heritage institutions building digital collections. http://www.law.berkeley.edu/librarycopyright.htm
The Association of Research Libraries , in particular its initiatives on Transforming Special Collections in the Digital Age  and on Copyright and Intellectual Property , has published a variety of documents relevant to the digitization of special collections and archives, including a 2012 special issue of Research Library Issues that covers legal concerns related to digitizing rare and unique materials. http://publications.arl.org/rli279/1
In 2009, the Society of American Archivists  issued Orphan Works: Statement of Best Practices to guide decision-making in conducting research into the copyright status of unpublished collections. The document includes a variety of useful links and appendices. http://www2.archivists.org/sites/all/files/OrphanWorks-June2009.pdf
In 2010, OCLC Research  organized a seminar and led the effort to develop a description of Well-intentioned practice for putting digitized collections of unpublished materials online , which provides useful guidance for institutions developing sustainable copyright risk assessment strategies for their digitization programs. http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/rights.html
In 2013, the Center for Media & Social Impact  issued the Report on Orphan Works Challenges: for libraries, archives, and other memory institutions, a study of the obstacles cultural memory institutions face in their efforts to address concerns about rights and intellectual property that concludes with a set of recommendations for the development and dissemination of best practices for overcoming these obstacles. http://cmsimpact.org/fair-use/related-materials/documents/report-orphan-works-challenges-libraries-archives-and-other-mem
Copyright and Related Issues Relevant to Digital Preservation and Dissemination of Unpublished Pre-1972 Sound Recordings by Libraries and Archives describes what libraries and archives can legally do to preserve and make accessible holdings of unpublished sound recordings. http://www.clir.org/pubs/abstract/reports/pub144
The National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH)  supports digitization and related activities through the Humanities Collections and Reference Resources program , the National Digital Newspaper Program , and the Preservation and Access Research and Development  grants. http://www.neh.gov/
The National Historical Publications & Records Commission (NHPRC)  offers funding for digitization and related activities through the Access to Historical Records program  and the Digital Dissemination of Archival Collections program . http://www.archives.gov/nhprc/
EDUCATION & TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES
Lyrasis  offers a variety of classes relevant to digitization and digital content management, such as Introduction to Audio Visual Digitization, Introduction to Digital Project Management Planning, and Digitization for Small Institutions. The classes and events schedule contains up-to-date information about offerings: https://www.lyrasis.org/Pages/Events.aspx
INFORMATION FROM DIGITIZATION SERVICE PROVIDERS
The "Internet Archive" [www.archive.org] (IA) is one of the world’s largest public digital libraries, with an extensive collection of human culture. Its mission includes offering free access to all digital knowledge for researchers, historians, scholars, people with disabilities, and the general public to outstanding collections that exist in digital format. The Internet Archive also offers online access and discovery of digital content, including public domain eBooks  and a more selective collection of public domain and non-public domain texts .
IA offers non-destructive digitization services - which include image capture, digital processing, preservation, and future proofing of digital data. Items to be digitized can be sent to one of 33 regional digitization centers around the world, or portable equipment can be placed on-site within libraries and archives.
Overview of IA Workflow: 
To reach one of the Internet Archive centers: https://archive.org/details/texts
To purchase digitization equipment: http://www.archive.org/details/tabletopscribesystem
If you would like to suggest a resource for inclusion on this page, send your suggestion to DigiWiki@clir.org. The DLF is currently seeking professionals from DLF member institutions who would like to participate in a working group to develop and maintain the content of this page. Prospective volunteers for this group should also send expressions of interest to DigiWiki@clir.org.